This course aims to highlight the complexity and challenges of peacebuilding in societies that have been plagued by deep rooted conflicts. Students will learn to identify and understand the characteristics of divided societies and the nature of conflict amongst its ethnic groups. Through a study of three cases: Cyprus, Guatemala and East Timor, students will learn the theories and frameworks that underlie the many peacebuilding approaches and strategies. This will enhance their ability to match or evaluate the peacebuilding strategies to the root causes of conflicts. Much of the emphasis in this course will be on the challenges faced by peacemakers engaged in peacebuilding without downplaying the efforts of formal Track I actors. Where possible, the course will examine the tensions between Track I actors and others engaged in peacebuilding. Students will pick a conflict case (a conflict involving deep divisions in people and one that has turned violent) and examine and comment on the peacebuilding efforts and approaches made by various actors in that conflict context.